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Korean Journal of Metals and Materials > Volume 59(4); 2021 > Article
Korean Journal of Metals and Materials 2021;59(4): 223-232. doi: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.4.223
바이폴라 전기투석을 이용한 수산화리튬 회수에 관한 기초 연구
조연철1, 김기훈1, 안재우1, 이재헌2
1대진대학교신소재공학과
2University of Arizona, Department of Mining and Geological Engineering
A Study on Lithium Hydroxide Recovery Using Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis
Yeonchul Cho1, Kihun Kim1, Jaewoo Ahn1, Jaeheon Lee2
1Department of Advanced Materials Sci. & Eng., Daejin University, Pocheon 11159, Republic of Korea
2Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721, United States
Correspondence  Jaewoo Ahn ,Tel: +82-31-539-1982, Email: jwahn@daejin.ac.kr
Received: 3 December 2020;  Accepted: 6 February 2021.  Published online: 24 March 2021.
ABSTRACT
Bipolar electrodialysis was used in a process of desalting a lithium sulfate solution, converting it to lithium hydroxide and sulfuric acid, and concentrating and recovering them. The effects of the experimental variables such as applied voltage, the concentration of electrode solution, the concentration of raw material solution, volume ratio, and impurity were confirmed. The optimum conditions were investigated by comparing the conversion(%) of lithium hydroxide and sulfuric acid, the process time, and energy consumption. As the applied voltage was increased, the energy consumption tended to increase, but the processing time decreased significantly. As the concentration of lithium sulfate in the raw material solution increased, the conversion(%) of lithium hydroxide decreased. As the concentration of lithium sulfate increased, the energy consumption did not increase linearly, and energy consumption increased significantly. When a raw material solution of 0.5 M Li2SO4 or more is used in the bipolar electrodialysis process, an applied voltage of 25 V is preferable. As the applied voltage increased at a constant process time, the conversion(%) of LiOH and H2SO4 increased. Regarding the effect of the electrode solution concentration, when a 5.0 wt% electrode solution was used rather than a 3.0 wt% electrode solution, energy consumption decreased by more than 10%. When the volume of the raw material solution was increased, the processing time required for desalting increased. By using a low concentration raw material solution, it was confirmed that it was simultaneously possible to recover and concentrate lithium hydroxide and sulfuric acid through volume ratio control. When the raw material solution contained Na as an impurity, it was converted to NaOH with a surface LiOH, and it was not possible to separate the lithium and sodium.
Keywords: bipolar electrodialysis, EDBM, lithium hydroxide, lithium sulfate, lithium ion battery
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