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Effects of Ge Doping on the Charge Transport and Thermoelectric Properties of Permingeatites Cu3Sb1−yGeySe4
Ji-Hee Pi, Go-Eun Lee,, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(6):422-429.   Published online 2021 May 26
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.6.422

Permingeatites Cu3Sb1−yGeySe4 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.14) were synthesized by mechanical alloying and hot pressing. The charge-transport parameters (Hall coefficient, carrier concentration, mobility, and Lorenz number) and thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor, thermal conductivity, and figure of merit) were examined with respect to the Ge doping level...... More

A Comparative Study of BaTiO3/PDMS Composite Film and a PVDF Nanofiber Mat for Application to Flexible Pressure Sensors
Donghyuck Park, Kwanlae Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(6):412-421.   Published online 2021 May 26
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.6.412

Intensive research has been conducted to develop flexible piezoelectric pressure sensors, since selfpowering devices are advantageous for wearable electronic applications. Recently, two types of piezoelectric devices, ceramic-PDMS composite film and PVDF nanofiber mats, have drawn attention in the research community. Piezoelectric ceramics such as BaTiO3 (BTO) and PZT exhibit outstanding..... More

Correlation between the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of W-Bearing Ti-6Al-4V Alloys
Godwin Kwame Ahiale, In-Seok Kye, Young Sam Kwon, Yong-Jun Oh
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(6):357-364.   Published online 2021 May 26
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.6.357

W-containing Ti-6Al-4V alloys (W=0, 1, and 5 wt%) were fabricated by the powder injection molding process, and the corresponding effects of tungsten content on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the alloys were investigated. The alloy powders were sintered at 1200 °C and then hot-isostatically-pressed at 900 °C. The fabricated..... More

Ultraviolet Light-Responsive Photorheological Fluid for Sensors and Actuators Realized by Phosphorescence Effects and LSTM RNN
Min Young Cho, Suman Timilsina, Jong Wook Roh, Walter Commerell, Ho Geun Shin, Yong-Nam Kwon, Ji Sik Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(5):346-353.   Published online 2021 Apr 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.5.346

A photo-rheological fluid (PRF) is a smart fluid which exhibits different viscosity under UV irradiation. A PRF is comprehensively presented in this work, with particular focus on its responses under UV off/on conditions. The isomeric conversion from SP to MC and vice versa under UV off and on, respectively, showed..... More

Charge Transport and Thermoelectric Properties of Mn-Doped Tetrahedrites Cu12-xMnxSb4S13
Sung-Yoon Kim, Go-Eun Lee, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(5):329-335.   Published online 2021 Apr 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.5.329

Mn-doped tetrahedrites Cu12-xMnxSb4S13 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and sintered by hot pressing (HP). A single tetrahedrite phase was synthesized by MA without post-annealing, and it was stable without any phase changes after HP. The hot-pressed specimens had a relative density higher than 98.6%...... More

Fabrication and Surface Deformation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes by RF Plasma and Ion Beam
Seong Min Hong, Jae Geun Gil
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(4):268-272.   Published online 2021 Mar 24
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.4.268

Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNT) are one of the candidate materials for storing hydrogen by physical adsorption. It has been reported that this hydrogen storage capacity increases as the crystallinity of the nanostructures decreases. Here, BNNT was synthesized using an RF plasma torch system, and the surface of the BNNT was..... More

Effects of Charge Compensation on the Thermoelectric Properties of (La1-zCez)0.8Fe4-xCoxSb12 Skutterudites
Kyung-Wook Jang, Ye-Eun Cha, Deok-Yeong Choi, Sunuk Kim, Won-Seon Seo, Kyu Hyoung Lee, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(4):239-246.   Published online 2021 Mar 24
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.4.239

La/Ce-partially double-filled and Co-charge-compensated (La1−zCez)0.8Fe4−xCoxSb12 skutterudites were synthesized, and their thermoelectric properties were studied by varying the filling ratio and charge compensation. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the matrix phase was skutterudite and a secondary phase was determined to the marcasite FeSb2. However, the formation of marcasite could be inhibited..... More

Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Treated with Oxygen Plasma using Atomic Force Microscopy
Donghyuck Park, Yijun Yang, Kwanlae Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(3):209-216.   Published online 2021 Feb 19
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.3.209

Zinc oxide (ZnO) simultaneously exhibits semiconducting and piezoelectric properties. ZnO in the form of nanorods has been studied intensively for application in self-powering devices. The power generation in piezoelectric nanogenerators based on ZnO nanorods can be improved via several approaches, including an oxygen plasma treatment. When ZnO nanorods are exposed..... More

Improved Ultraviolet Photoresponse Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Using Hydrothermal Method Applied Rotating Precursor Solution
Dongwan Kim, Jae-Young Leem
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(3):187-194.   Published online 2021 Feb 19
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.3.187

We grew ZnO nanorods (NRs) using a hydrothermal method while rotating the precursor solution, and report the effect of rotation on surface modification, and the optical and ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse properties of the resulting ZnO nanorods. The ZnO NRs grown in the rotating precursor solution at 100 rpm had the..... More

Effective Method for Preparing Low-Oxygen Titanium Ingot by Combined Powder Deoxidation and Vacuum Arc Melting Processes
Jung-Min Oh, Jaeyeol Yang, Jaesik Yoon, Jae-Won Lim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(3):149-154.   Published online 2021 Feb 19
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.3.149

In this study, an effective method is demonstrated for fabricating titanium sputtering targets, which are used to fabricate thin films in the semiconductor industry. The method is an alternative to the existing electron beam melting (EBM) process under high vacuum. Titanium sputtering targets used in the production of semiconductors must..... More

Fabricating Elastomeric Photomask with Nanosized-Metal Patterns for Near-Field Contact Printing
Sangyoon Paik, Gwangmook Kim, Dongchul Seo, Wooyoung Shim
Korean J. Met. Mater. ;59(2):142-148.   Published online 2021 Jan 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.2.142

When an elastomeric photomask is used for near-field contact printing, the high deformability of the elastomer mask plate enables gap-free full contact with the substrate, minimizing the effect of diffraction. This image-transfer technique provides sub-50 nm resolution and depth-of-focus-free lithographic capability with cost-efficient equipment. However, the method’s application is limited..... More

Nucleation and Growth-Controlled Morphology Evolution of Cu Nanostructures During High-Pressure Thermal Evaporation
Eunji Lee, Woomi Gwon, Sangwoo Ryu
Korean J. Met. Mater. ;59(2):135-141.   Published online 2021 Jan 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.2.135

The formation of porous material structures has been widely investigated for the development of high-performance energy materials, catalysts, and chemical sensing devices. Various nanoporous structure fabrication methods are based on wet-chemical processes, which require precise control of the process parameters. Physical vapor deposition such as thermal evaporation utilizes high vacuum..... More

Fluorine-based Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of α-Ga2O3 Epitaxy Film
Ji Hun Um, Byoung Su Choi, Woo Sik Jang, Sungu Hwang, Dae-Woo Jeon, Jin Kon Kim, Hyun Cho
Korean J. Met. Mater. ;59(2):121-126.   Published online 2021 Jan 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.2.121

α-Ga2O3 has the largest bandgap (~5.3 eV) among the five polymorphs of Ga2O3 and is a promising candidate for high power electronic and optoelectronic devices. To fabricate various device structures, it is important to establish an effective dry etch process which can provide practical etch rate, smooth surface morphology and..... More

Effect of Ultrasonic Cleaning of Titanium Turning Scraps Immersed in Alkaline Solution and Subsequent Preparation of Ferrotitanium Ingots
Suhwan Yoo, Jikwang Chae, Jung-Min Oh, Jae-Won Lim
Korean J. Met. Mater. ;59(2):113-120.   Published online 2021 Jan 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.2.113

Ti has excellent properties but is more expensive than other materials due to its high melting point, high reactivity and difficult processability. One way to lower the production cost of Ti products is to recycle Ti scraps. Before recycling Ti scraps, pretreatment to remove contamination is essential. Ti scraps can..... More

A New Fracture Analysis Technique for Charpy Impact Test Using Image Processing
Tae Chang Park, Beom Suk Kim, Ji Hee Son, Yeong Koo Yeo
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2021;59(1):61-66.   Published online 2021 Jan 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2021.59.1.61

The Charpy impact test is used to identify the transition between ductility and brittleness. The percentages of ductile and brittle fractures in steel can be evaluated based on each fracture area, which is presently determined by an analyzer with the naked eye. This method may lead to subjective judgement, and..... More

Effect of Shielding Gases on the Wire Arc Additive Manufacturability of 5 Cr – 4 Mo Tool Steel for Die Casting Mold Making
Jae-Deuk Kim, Jae Won Kim, Joo Yong Cheon, Yang-Do Kim, Changwook Ji
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(12):852-862.   Published online 2020 Dec 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.12.852

Generally, molds are fabricated by the machining of massive billets of tool steels, such as AISI4140 or H13, but it has drawbacks, such as a large material loss and long-delivery time. The Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) process could be an alternative fabrication method. It has the advantages of less material..... More

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Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ni–Cr–Y2O3 Alloy Sintered Powder Composed of Oxide-Embedded Metallic Particles
Changjae Kim, Jungho Gwak, Jaewon Lim, Minsuk Oh, Jeshin Park
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(12):843-851.   Published online 2020 Dec 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.12.843

In this study, oxide (Y2O3)-embedded Ni particles were fabricated via a new process. The process involves the mechanical hydrogenation of Ni–Y alloy into Ni–YH2 and the selective oxidation of Ni–YH2 to Ni–Y2O3. The alloy powders were prepared for sintering by the mechanical alloying of a mixed powder. The powder was..... More

Transforming Carbon Black into Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Ethanol
Jung-Il Lee, Jeong Ho Ryu
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(11):808-814.   Published online 2020 Oct 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.11.808

Graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) are nanometer-sized graphene oxide fragments that exhibit unique properties, making them interesting candidates for a range of new applications. Carbon black, one of the commercially available carbon precursors, is produced by the thermal decomposition or incomplete combustion of organic compounds. It is commonly used as..... More

Facile Synthesis of Single-Phase Alpha-Tungsten Nanopowders from Ammonium Paratungstate by RF Induction Thermal Plasma and Thermochemical Reduction
Dongyoon Shin, Hyun-Woo Shim, Basudev Swain, Kyung-Soo Park, Chan-Gi Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(11):798-807.   Published online 2020 Oct 15
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.11.798

Facile, economic methods of preparing tungsten (W) nanopowder are critically needed to meet industrial demand. Herein, we report a method of preparing single-phase alpha-W (α-W) nanopowders using ammonium paratungstate (APT) as a starting material and the optimum synthesis conditions. The process involves two stages: i) the radio-frequency (RF) induction thermal..... More

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Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of Ti Doped In2O3 thin Films Treated by Post-deposition Electron Beam Irradiation
Su-Hyeon Choe, Yun-Je Park, Yu-Sung Kim, Byung-Chul Cha, Sung-Bo Heo, Sungook Yoon, Young-Min Kong, Daeil Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(11):793-797.   Published online 2020 Oct 15
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.11.793

Transparent and conductive Ti doped In2O3 (TIO) films were prepared on slide glass substrate using a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputter and then subjected to Transparent and conductive Ti doped In2O3 (TIO) films were prepared on a glass slide substrate using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputter. The film surface was..... More

KIST-NOMAD - a Repository to Manage Large Amounts of Computational Materials Science Data
Samuel Boateng, Kwang Ryeol Lee, Deepika , Haneol Cho, Kyu Hwan Lee, Chansoo Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(10):728-739.   Published online 2020 Oct 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.10.728

We introduce the Korea Institute of Science and Technology-Novel Materials Discovery (KISTNOMAD) platform, a materials data repository. We describe its functionality and novel features from an academic viewpoint. It is a data repository designed for computational material science, especially focusing on managing and sharing the results of molecular dynamics simulation..... More

Facile Synthesis of ZnO Thin Films at Low Temperatures Using an Additive-Free Electrochemical Oxidation Method
Euije Jo, Dongwan Kim, Jae-Young Leem
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(9):645-652.   Published online 2020 Aug 13
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.9.645

Because of their simplicity and low equipment costs, various oxidation methods can be used to create metal oxides, but they still require long processing times and/or high temperatures. In this study, a new electrochemical oxidation (ECO) method, which oxidizes metal in DI water with a constant flowing current to both..... More

Extended Energy Conservation Law in Alloys: the Absence of Energy Non-Equilibrium
Myung Sik Choi, Han Gil Na, Changhyun Jin, Kyu Hyoung Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(8):566-572.   Published online 2020 Jul 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.8.566

Assuming that many of the materials produced in a non-equilibrium state remain unchanged, an extended space–energy conservation law was proposed based on the existing energy conservation law. In the present study, by analyzing the well developed equilibrium binary phase diagram of iron (Fe) – carbon (C), we show that energy..... More

Improvement of Wear Resistance in Laser Shock-Peened Copper Contacts
Donghyuck Jung, Changkyoo Park, Eun-Joon Chun, Yoon-Jun Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(8):560-565.   Published online 2020 Jul 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.8.560

This study investigated the influence of laser shock peening without coating (LSPw/oC) on the degradation of copper electrical contacts. A theoretical calculation of the plastic-affected depth (PAD) induced by LSPw/oC was performed, based on the laser-induced plasma pressure along with the Hugoniot elastic limit of our LSPw/oC experimental conditions. The..... More

A Further Study on Knoop Indentation Plastic Deformation for Evaluating Residual Stress
Woojoo Kim, Kyungyul Lee, Jong-hyoung Kim, Young-Cheon Kim, Dongil Kwon
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(8):515-521.   Published online 2020 Jul 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.8.515

A method for evaluating residual stress using an instrumented indentation test was developed some decades ago. More recently, another method was developed, using a Knoop indenter. The conversion factor ratio, which is one of the key factors in the evaluation algorithm, has been taken to be 0.34, although this value..... More

Correlations Between Alkali and Crystallinity in lyocell-Based ACF Probed with X-Ray Diffraction
Young Min Jin, Joon Hyuk Lee, Sang Sun Choi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(7):495-500.   Published online 2020 Jul 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.7.495

This study examined the effect of alkalis on lyocell-based activated carbon fibres (ACFs) with high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Here, alkali treatments were conducted using 10 ~ 25 % NaOH and KOH on lyocell samples for 3 h at ambient room temperature. A secondary treatment with..... More

Interactions Between Ionic Liquid (ALiCY) and TBP and their Use in Hydrometallurgy for Extracting Co(II) and Ni(II)
Thanh Tuan Tran, Man Seung Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(6):423-432.   Published online 2020 May 14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.6.423

Ionic liquids have emerged in hydrometallurgy as potential extractants for metals. In this work, the interactions of ALiCY (R4N+A-) synthesized by Aliquat336 and Cyanex272, and a mixture of ALiCY and TBP, were analyzed using extraction data and FT-IR spectroscopy. Co(II) and Ni(II) were extracted from two HCl concentrations (1.0×10-4 and..... More

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Enhanced Thermoelectric Transport Properties of n-type InSe by Sn doping
Sung-sil Choo, Seok-won Hong, Hyun-Sik Kim, Sang-il Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(5):348-352.   Published online 2020 Apr 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.5.348

Layered post transition metal chalcogenides such as SnSe, SnSe2, In2Se3, and In4Se3 have attracted attention as promising thermoelectric materials due to their intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivities. Recently, n-type indium selenide (InSe) based materials have also been suggested as good candidates for thermoelectric materials by optimizing their electrical properties, i.e.,..... More

Synthesis of Fe-Doped Tetrahedrites Cu12-xFexSb4S13 and Characterization of Their Thermoelectric Properties
Sung-Yoon Kim, Ji-Hee Pi, Go-Eun Lee, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(5):340-347.   Published online 2020 Apr 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.5.340

Tetrahedrite (C12Sb4S13) has attracted attention as a p-type thermoeletric material with very low thermal conductivity induced by the anharmonic oscillation of Cu due to the lone-pair electrons of Sb. Many studies have been conducted to improve its thermoelectric performance by partially substituting the transition elements for the Cu sites. In..... More

Design of Ultrawide Bandwidth Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers with Square Patch Frequency Selective Surfaces with Different Geometries
Tian Liu, Sung-Soo Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2020;58(5):326-333.   Published online 2020 Apr 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.5.326

A reliable and efficient numerical method is presented for the design of broadband absorbers, fabricated by layering two square patch-frequency selective surfaces (SP-FSS) with different geometries on a grounded dielectric substrate. The circuit parameters of the inductance and capacitance of the SP-FSS were retrieved using the strip wire conductor model...... More

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