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Development of Wet Chemical Analysis Technique for Tramp Elements (M = As, Pb, Sb, and Sn) in Silver-M Alloys
Won-Bum Park, Yong-Woo Kim, Sun-Joong Kim, Youn-Bae Kang
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(9):694-703.   Published online 2023 Aug 30
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.9.694

Wet chemical analysis techniques for four elements (M = As, Pb, Sb, and Sn) in Ag – M binary alloys were investigated with emphasis on the choice of solvent acid and the characteristic wavelength used in the ICP-AES (Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer) analysis. The elements are representative tramp elements..... More

Effects of Stacking Number on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties for Cold Roll Bonding Process of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Seong-Hee Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(9):652-658.   Published online 2023 Aug 30
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.9.652

A cold roll-bonding (CRB) process is applied to study the effects of stacking number on the microstructure and mechanical properties of roll-bonded and age-treated Al sheets. Commercial AA1050 and AA6061 sheets with a thickness of 2 mm were stacked alternately on each other to two and four layers, and roll-bonded..... More

Electrochemical Characteristics of Elastic, Non-Polar Polyurethane-Based Polymer Gel Electrolyte for Separator-Less Lithium-Ion Batteries
Alloyssius E.G. Gorospe, Dongwoo Kang, Dongwook Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(8):616-624.   Published online 2023 Jul 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.8.616

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have undergone countless enhancements in the past decade, mainly improvements in the basic components: electrodes, electrolyte, and separator. The separator, which acts as a physical barrier between the two electrodes, does not directly participate in the charge and energy storage. However, it is involved in the safety, form..... More

Transition Metal Dichalcogenide WS2 Films Prepared with a Combination of Spin/Dip Coating and CVD
Woon-Seop Choi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(8):602-607.   Published online 2023 Jul 24
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.8.602

Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with 2D structure have attracted interest due to their many unique optical and electrical properties. The primary preparation methods for 2D materials are chemical vapor deposition (CVD), exfoliation, and other vacuum technologies. Large-scale synthesis of WS2 via solution-process is rare due to the higher temperature..... More

Microstructural Evolutions and Strengthening Mechanism according to the Aging Temperatures of a High Si Cast Aluminum Alloy
Won-Sang Shin, Yoon-Jun Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(7):524-533.   Published online 2023 Jun 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.7.524

A356 cast aluminum alloy contains 7 at.% Si and 0.3 at.% Mg, producing an approximately 50% eutectic microstructure. This high Si content and various casting conditions play a significant role in strengthening A356 alloy, by controlling the eutectic morphology and precipitates of other intermetallic compounds. Understanding how Si-related precipitates and..... More

Effects of Double Doping Germanium and Indium on the Thermoelectric Properties of Permingeatite
Bong-Ki Hong, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(7):489-499.   Published online 2023 Jun 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.7.489

Cu3Sb1–x–yGexInySe4 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.12; 0.04 ≤ y ≤ 0.08) permingeatite compounds doped with Ge and In were prepared using solid-state synthesis. The phases and microstructures were analyzed, and the charge transport and thermoelectric properties were evaluated according to the Ge and In doping content. Most of the samples..... More

Spheroidization Heat Treatment Conditions with Data Analysis in Medium Carbon Cr-Mo Steel for Ultra High Strength Cold Heading
Yong Deok Jo, Hui Ju Lee, Sung Yi, Byoung Lok Jang
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(7):459-471.   Published online 2023 Jun 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.7.459

The degree to which parameters affect the spheroidization heat treatment of steel was calculated by setting the spheroidization heat treatment conditions of Cr-Mo steel and using data analysis such as S/N ratio and ANOVA. After analyzing the transformation temperatures of the steel, Ac1 and Ac3 , using a DSC, the..... More

Enhanced Thermoelectric Transport Properties in Cu-added Bi2Se3 Polycrystalline Alloys
Hyungyu Cho, TaeWan Kim, Seung Min Kang, Sanghyun Park, Sang-il Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(6):431-436.   Published online 2023 May 18
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.6.431

The addition of Cu to layered Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric alloys has been studied as an effective way to enhance thermoelectric transport properties. In this study, the influence of adding Cu to Bi2Se3 alloys, which have the same rhombohedral crystal structure as Bi2Te3, was investigated by synthesizing a series of CuxBi2Se3 (x..... More

Improved Thermoelectric Performance of Cu3Sb1−x−ySnxInySe4 Permingeatites Double-Doped with Sn and In
Ho-Jeong Kim, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(6):422-430.   Published online 2023 May 18
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.6.422

Cu–Sb–Se ternary chalcogenide compounds composed of earth-abundant low-toxicity elements are attracting attention as economical and ecofriendly semiconductors. Among them, permingeatite (Cu3SbSe4) is a potential thermoelectric material with high Seebeck coefficient and low lattice thermal conductivity. However, it is necessary to improve its thermoelectric properties through doping, as it has low..... More

Gadolinium-Doped CeO2 Gas Sensor for H2S Sensing
Changhyun Jin, Sangwoo Kim, Dong Eung Kim, Ali Mirzaei, Jong Wook Roh, Sun-Woo Choi, Myung Sik Choi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(6):414-421.   Published online 2023 May 18
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.6.414

Dihydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas has a flammable nature and is one of the most toxic and dangerous gases. Even small concentrations can be fatal to humans. Herein, we investigated the H2S gas-sensing features of commercial pristine cerium oxide (CeO2 ) and gadolinium (Gd)-doped CeO2 (GDC) nanoparticles. First, the sensing materials..... More

Bytizite Cu3SbSe3: Solid-State Synthesis and Thermoelectric Performance
Go-Eun Lee, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(5):363-370.   Published online 2023 Apr 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.5.363

Bytizite (Cu3SbSe3 ) has attracted interest as a promising thermoelectric material because of its ultralow thermal conductivity; however, there are few experimental studies. This study investigated the optimal processing conditions for the synthesis of Cu3SbSe3 using mechanical alloying (MA) and hot pressing (HP). The MA powder exhibited an orthorhombic Cu3SbSe3..... More

Effects of Sn and In Double-Doping on the Thermoelectric Performance of Cu3Sb1-x-ySnxInyS4 Famatinites
Sang Yun, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(5):355-362.   Published online 2023 Apr 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.5.355

Famatinite (Cu3SbS4 ) is a promising p-type thermoelectric material because of its low lattice thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. In this study, famatinite powders, double-doped with Sn (a BIV group element) and In (a BIII group element) to give Cu3Sb1-x-ySnxInyS4 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.12 and 0.06 ≤..... More

                           Cited By 1
Effect of added TiO2 on the mechanical properties of sintered Al2O3 insulator
Ri Joo Kim, Han Gyeol Jeong, Ye Ji Son, So Yeon Si, Sung-Soo Ryu, Sang Ki Ko, Hyun Seon Hong
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(5):330-337.   Published online 2023 Apr 20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.5.330

The effect of TiO2 additive concentration and sintering temperatures on the densification of alumina (Al2O3 ) ceramics were investigated. Densified alumina specimens were prepared by uniaxial pressing at a pressure of 60 MPa followed by isothermal heating at either 1400, 1500, or 1600 o C for 2 h. The relative..... More

Phase, Crystal Structure, and Thermoelectric Performance of Cubic Skinnerite Cu3Sb1-yFeyS3 Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying
Sang Jun Park, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(4):277-283.   Published online 2023 Mar 22
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.4.277

Skinnerite (Cu3SbS3) has recently attracted attention as a promising thermoelectric material because of its low thermal conductivity. In this study, we performed the solid-state synthesis of Fe-doped skinnerite Cu3Sb1-yFeyS3 (y = 0.02−0.06) using mechanical alloying and hot pressing, and examined the samples’ thermoelectric properties relative to Fe doping content. All..... More

Solid-State Synthesis and Thermoelectric Performance of Cu3Sb1−yBIII ySe4 (BIII = Al, In) Permingeatites
Ho-Jeong Kim, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(4):269-276.   Published online 2023 Mar 22
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.4.269

Permingeatite (Cu3SbSe4) is a promising thermoelectric material with narrow bandgap energy and large carrier effective mass. However, doping is required to improve its electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties. In this study, Cu3Sb1−y(Al/In)ySe4 doped with BIII-group elements (Al or In) at the Sb sites was synthesized using mechanical alloying followed by..... More

                           Cited By 1
Electrical, Thermal, and Thermoelectric Transport Properties of Co-Doped n-type Cu0.008Bi2Te2.6Se0.4 Polycrystalline Alloys
Okmin Park, TaeWan Kim, Minsu Heo, Sang Jeong Park, Se Woong Lee, Hyun Kyu Cho, Sang-il Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(3):206-212.   Published online 2023 Feb 24
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.3.206

Bi2Te3-based alloys have been extensively studied as thermoelectric materials near room temperature. In this study, the electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric transport properties of a series of Co-doped n-type Cu0.008Bi2Te2.6Se0.4 polycrystalline alloys (Cu0.008Bi2−xCoxTe2.6Se0.4, x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12) are investigated. The electrical conductivity of the Cu0.008Bi1.97Co0.03Te2.6Se0.4 (x =..... More

                           Cited By 1
Interfacial Layer Effect on the Adhesion of the Ultra-Hard Thick TAC Film Deposition
Sang-Won Lim, Jeung-Soo Huh
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(3):157-169.   Published online 2023 Feb 24
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.3.157

Carbon-based thin film tool coatings, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), have excellent lowfriction and anti-sticking properties. These thin films are widely used for the cutting and machining of increasingly widely-used lightweight non-metallic and non-ferrous metal materials, as a part of countermeasures against global warming. However, non-metallic and non-ferrous metal materials..... More

Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Graphite Composites with Spatial Anisotropy
Geon Hong Ryu, Changil Son, Jeffrey C. Suhling, Jiseok Lee, Sangha Park, Myunghwan Byun
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(2):120-125.   Published online 2023 Jan 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.2.120

In the present study, we analyzed the thermal and mechanical properties of Cu-graphite composites (CGCs) with spatially anisotropic graphite layers. These composites were fabricated using a combination of electroless plating and spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients of the composites were measured using differential thermal..... More

Bandgap Reduction and Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Electrolysis of Sulfur-doped CuBi2O4 Photocathode
Eunhwa Kim, Sanghan Lee, Sangwoo Ryu
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(2):115-119.   Published online 2023 Jan 27
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.2.115

As interest in hydrogen energy grows, eco-friendly methods of producing hydrogen are being explored. CuBi2O4 is one of the p-type semiconductor cathode materials that can be used for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production via environment-friendly water electrolysis. CuBi2O4 has a bandgap of 1.5 – 1.8 eV which allows it to photogenerate electrons..... More

Fabrication of Self-Healable, Robust, and Superhydrophobic Nanocomposite Films
Siwoo Park, Young-Geun Ha
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(1):54-59.   Published online 2022 Dec 28
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.1.54

Despite the recent advances in nature-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces with multifunctional properties such as self-healing, self-cleaning, antibacterial material, anti-biofouling, and oil-water separation in various industrial applications, there have been very few reports of robust superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated via a low-cost method. Herein, we report a rationally designed, self-healable, robust, and superhydrophobic..... More

Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Sn-Doped Permingeatites Cu3Sb1-ySnySe4
Ji-Hee Pi, Go-Eun Lee, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2023;61(1):46-53.   Published online 2022 Dec 28
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2023.61.1.46

In this study, Cu3Sb1-ySnySe4 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.08) permingeatites were synthesized via mechanical alloying followed by hot pressing. The phase transformation, microstructure, charge transport parameters of the permingeatites, and their thermoelectric properties were analyzed. The permingeatites were present in a single phase with a tetragonal structure, and secondary phases..... More

Transition to n-type Thermoelectric Conduction in Ni-doped FeSe2 Alloys
Young Bin An, Sang Jeong Park, Okmin Park, Sang-il Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(12):926-932.   Published online 2022 Nov 25
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.12.926

We investigated the effect of Ni doping on the electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric transport properties of FeSe2 polycrystalline alloys. FeSe2 alloys exhibit both n-type and p-type conduction at different temperatures and thus their practicality as a thermoelectric material is somewhat limited. In this study, Fe1-xNixSe2 polycrystalline samples with x =..... More

                           Cited By 3
Electrical, Thermal, and Thermoelectric Transport Properties of Se-doped Polycrystalline Re2Te5
Se Woong Lee, Okmin Park, Hyun-Sik Kim, Won-Seon Seo, Sang-il Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(12):919-925.   Published online 2022 Nov 25
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.12.919

Re2Te5 is considered a potential thermoelectric material because of its intrinsically low thermal conductivity, due to its complex crystal structure. Herein, a series of Se-doped Re2Te5 (Re2Te5-xSex, x = 0, 0.2, 1, and 2) samples were synthesized, and their electrical and thermal transport properties were investigated. Pure orthorhombic Re2Te5 phases..... More

                           Cited By 2
Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-added Polycrystalline Bi2O2Se Oxyselenide
Si-young Bae, Se Woong Lee, Hyun-Sik Kim, Okmin Park, Hyunjin Park, Won-Seon Seo, Sang-il Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(12):912-918.   Published online 2022 Nov 25
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.12.912

Bi2O2Se oxyselenide has been actively studied as a potential n-type thermoelectric material because of its intrinsically low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient (S). However, Bi2O2Se has very low electrical conductivity (σ), resulting in relatively poor thermoelectric performance. Herein, we investigate the effect of Cu addition on the electrical and..... More

                           Cited By 1
Ion Exchange for the Purification of Co(II) or Ni(II) from Acidic and Ammonia Solutions in the Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries
Thanh Tuan Tran, Man Seung Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(12):902-911.   Published online 2022 Nov 25
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.12.902

The recycling of critical metals like cobalt and nickel from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is of immense importance in sustainable manufacturing. This work aims to purify Co(II) and Ni(II) present in acidic and ammonia solutions using ion exchange. AG-1-X8 resin modified with thiocyanate anions (R4N+SCN resin) was used to separate..... More

                           Cited By 1
Effects of V Alloying on Thermoelectric Properties of NbFeSb Half-Heusler Materials Codoped with Ti, Zr, and Sn
Sung-Jae Joo, JeongIn Jang, Ji-Hee Son, Bong-Seo Kim, Bok-Ki Min
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(11):858-864.   Published online 2022 Oct 31
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.11.858

NbFeSb-based alloys are promising p-type half-Heusler materials with excellent thermoelectric performance, thermal stability, and naturally abundant constituent elements. Alloying and doping are powerful techniques for enhancing the thermoelectric properties of half-Heusler materials. This study experimentally investigated the effects of V alloying in NbFeSb codoped with Ti, Zr, and Sn. As..... More

Electrospun Nanofiber-Based Electrodes Composed of Core-Shell (PVDF)-(Al) Structures for Application to Flexible Electronics
Heesung Park, Kwanlae Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(10):760-768.   Published online 2022 Sep 29
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.10.760

Nanostructured transparent conductors have been studied intensively for application to flexible and transparent electronic devices. Among diverse nanomaterials, electrospun nanofibers provide several advantages over other nanomaterials, including a high aspect ratio, uniform distribution, and a facile fabrication process. In the present study, an electrode composed of a core-shell (PVDF)-(Al) structured..... More

Selective Extraction of Cu(II) from the Hydrochloric Acid Leaching Solution of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries by a Mixture of Aliquat 336 and LIX 63
Jiangxian Wen, Man Seung Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(10):751-759.   Published online 2022 Sep 29
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.10.751

The smelting reduction of spent LIBs produces metallic alloys containing Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni. These metallic alloys can be completely dissolved by 2 M HCl solution containing H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. Extraction of the leaching solution with D2EHPA results in a Fe(III) free raffinate. In this work,..... More

                           Cited By 1
Fabrication and Surface Modification of Macroporous Silica Fibers by Electrospinning for Super Adsorbent of Oil
Hoai Han Nguyen, Thi Thu Hien Nguyen, Young-Sang Cho
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(10):732-743.   Published online 2022 Sep 29
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.10.732

Silica fibers were fabricated by sol-gel reaction and an electrospinning process. A high voltage source of electricity was applied to the prepared spinning solution to form the fibers. Macroporous silica fibers were prepared using polystyrene (PS) nanospheres as templates after calcination. The pore size could be controlled by adjusting the..... More

                           Cited By 2
Enhancing mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Y-Zn alloys via microalloying with Ce and La
Zhaobin Zhang, Jonghyun Kim, Hongxin Liao, Ki Buem Kim, Taekjib Choi, Taekyung Lee, Fusheng Pan
김기범, 최택집, 이태경,
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2022;60(9):654-667.   Published online 2022 Aug 30
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2022.60.9.654

This study investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-1Gd-1Y-1Zn (at.%) alloys containing designed amounts of Ce or La. The Mg5(Gd,Zn) phase formed in the as-cast Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Ce/La alloys and disappeared after a homogenization treatment at 500°C for 24 h. The addition of Ce and La resulted in the formation of..... More

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