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Low-Temperature H2S Sensors Based on Si-Coated SnO2 Nanowires
Myung Sik Choi, Ali Mirzaei, Jae Hoon Bang, Han Gil Na, Changhyun Jin, Wansik Oum, Seungmin Han, Sang Sub Kim, Hyoun Woo Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(11):732-740.   Published online 2019 Nov 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.11.732

Abstract
To attain high life standards, it is important to develop high-performance non-toxic gas sensors for public safety, environmental pollutant control, industrial processes, etc. Because reports on single element semiconductor-coated semiconducting metal oxides for sensing applications are rare, we synthesized SnO2 nanowires and coated them with a 5 nm-thick or 10..... More

                        
Mechanical Performance and Microstructure of Resistance Element Welds of Dissimilar Metals Created with a Headless Rivet
Young Hyun Oh, Hyun Jung Ryu, Taejung Kim, Minsu Choi, Taeseon Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(11):708-714.   Published online 2019 Oct 8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.11.708

Abstract
Resistance Element Welding (REW) is a novel processing technology developed to join dissimilar materials such as aluminum and steel. It uses an auxiliary steel rivet (element) inserted into an aluminum sheet that forms a resistance spot weld with the steel sheet, and the aluminum work piece is mechanically joined by..... More

                        
Improvement of the Hydrogen-Release Features of Mg-Graphene Composite by Adding Nickel via Reactive Ball Milling
Eunho Choi, Young Jun Kwak, Myoung Youp Song
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(10):663-672.   Published online 2019 Sep 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.10.663

Abstract
The dehydrogenation rates of graphene-added Mg (named Mg-5graphene) were very low at 573 K and 593 K. Ni was added to increase the dehydrogenation rates of graphene-added Mg. Samples (designated as Mg-2.5Ni-2.5graphene) with a composition of 95 wt% Mg + 2.5 wt% Ni + 2.5 wt% graphene were prepared by..... More

                        
Up- and Downconversion Luminescence in Ho3+,Yb3+-Co-Doped Y2O3 Transparent Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering
Cheol Woo Park, Jun Hyeong In, Jae Hwa Park, Kwang Bo Shim, Jeong Ho Ryu
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(9):609-616.   Published online 2019 Aug 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.9.609

Abstract
We employed spark plasma sintering (SPS) in the presence of sintering aids to fabricate high-quality Ho3+,Yb3+-co-doped Y2O3 transparent ceramics suitable for use as a laser gain medium, and analyzed their microstructure and optical properties. Ho3+,Yb3+-co-doped Y2O3 transparent ceramics with different contents of Yb3+ were fabricated by SPS and exhibited high..... More

                        
Optimization of the CMP Process with Colloidal Silica Performance for Bulk AlN Single Crystal Substrate
Hyo Sang Kang, Joo Hyung Lee, Jae Hwa Park, Hee Ae Lee, Won Il Park, Seung Min Kang, Sung Chul Yi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(9):582-588.   Published online 2019 Aug 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.9.582

Abstract
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of bulk AlN was performed with colloidal silica slurry at pH 9 for different times. The result shows that colloidal silica slurry at pH 9, which has the relatively high surface charge of -50.7 mV is most stable, and it was selected as chemically optimum condition..... More

                        
High-Temperature Oxidation of Fe-12Cr-0.3C-4Mn-(13-15)Cu Composite Alloys
Min Jung Kim, Sang-Hwan Bak, Junhee Hahn, Seon Jin Kim, Dong Bok Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(9):575-581.   Published online 2019 Aug 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.9.575

Abstract
Alloys of Fe-12Cr-0.3C-4Mn-(13, 14, 15)Cu (wt%) were cast using an induction furnace. They were structurally heterogeneous composites that consisted of a relatively stiff α-Fe matrix and a soft (Cu, Mn)-rich secondary phase. They were developed as self-lubricating, wear-resistant metals. Since the formation of oxides plays an important role in wear,..... More

                        
Eco-Friendly Pretreatment of Titanium Turning Scraps and Subsequent Preparation of Ferro-Titanium Ingots
Jikwang Chae, Jung-Min Oh, Suhwan Yoo, Jae-Won Lim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(9):569-574.   Published online 2019 Aug 21
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.9.569

Abstract
In this study, an eco-friendly pretreatment process was developed to recycle titanium turning scraps and ferro-titanium ingots with low gaseous impurities were prepared using recycled titanium turning scraps. The amount of gaseous impurities of titanium scraps before removing the machining oils on the surface was as high as 20000 ppm...... More

                        
Thermal Conductivity of Three-Dimensionally Interconnected Graphene-Networked Cu Composite Fabricated by a Simple Two-Step Process
Xue Li, Terry Arthur Ring, Byung-Sang Choi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(8):529-534.   Published online 2019 Jul 11
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.8.529

Abstract
A Cu composite reinforced by a three-dimensionally interconnected graphene network was synthesized in situ by a simple two-step process utilizing compacted Cu powder (99% purity) as a template for the growth of graphene. Cu composites with different graphene contents were obtained by controlling the processing parameters. The composites were approximated..... More

                        
Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of ZnO/Ag/SnO2 Tri-Layer Films
Su-Hyeon Choe, Yu-Sung Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Yun-Je Park, Byung-Chul Cha, Young-Min Kong, Daeil Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(8):506-509.   Published online 2019 Aug 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.8.506

Abstract
ZnO 50 nm/Ag 10 nm/SnO2 50 nm (ZAS) tri-layer films were deposited on a glass substrate by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and then underwent rapid thermal annealing in a low vacuum of 1×10-3 Torr to investigate the effects of post-deposition annealing on the optical and electrical properties of the..... More

                        
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of Laser Beam and Gas Metal Arc Welds on API X65 Steel
Junghoon Lee, Myeonghyun Kim, Yeongdo Park, Cheolho Park, Cheolhee Kim, Namhyun Kang
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(8):491-498.   Published online 2019 Jul 11
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.8.491

Abstract
Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) behavior was analyzed for gas metal arc (GMA) and laser beam (LB) welds on American Petroleum Institute (API) X65 steel. The GMA welds consisted of acicular ferrite (AF) with some widmanstatten ferrite (WF), while the LB welds had bainitic ferrite (BF) with some AF. The welds and..... More

                        
Effect of Process Parameters on the Angular Distribution of Sputtered Cu Flux in Long-Throw Sputtering System
Hee-Young Shin, Tae-Ho Kim, Jun-Woo Park, Hyun-Chul Sohn
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(7):462-467.   Published online 2019 Jun 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.7.462

Abstract
In this work, the angular distribution of the sputtered Cu flux in a long throw sputtering (LTS) system is extracted from the comparison of experimentally-measured profiles of deposited films with simulated profiles of films in overhang contact structure. And effects of the sputtering process parameters such as Ar pressure during..... More

                        
Effects of Molybdenum on HIC Susceptibility in Normalized Pressure Vessel Steels for Sour Service Applications
Kijung Park, Dae Hyun Cho, Min-Ho Park, Cheol-Woong Yang
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(7):405-411.   Published online 2019 Jun 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.7.405

Abstract
This paper discusses a molybdenum-added alloy design for normalized pressure vessel steels, to reduce hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and inhibit crack propagation. The change in microstructure produced by the modified alloy composition was analyzed to determine its effect on HIC characteristics. The microstructural change was observed by optical microscopy, hardness..... More

                        
Tin Microcrystals Synthesized by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition in a Hydrogen-Reducing Atmosphere
Daseul Ham, Won Jeong, Hyon Chol Kang
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(6):390-395.   Published online 2019 May 16
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.6.390

Abstract
We demonstrate a synthetic route to high-quality Sn microcrystals using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a hydrogen-reducing atmosphere. During thermal CVD with SnO2 powder, a mixture of Ar and H2 (4%) gases was used as a carrier gas to maintain a hydrogen reduction environment. Hydrogen maintained a reduction environment..... More

                        
Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of (La1−zNdz)0.8Fe4−xCoxSb12 Skutterudites
Ye-Eun Cha, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(6):366-373.   Published online 2019 May 16
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.6.366

Abstract
p-Type (La1−zNdz)0.8Fe4−xCoxSb12 skutterudites were prepared by partial double filling with La/Nd and charge compensation by substituting Co for Fe. The skutterudite phase was successfully synthesized using encapsulated melting, quenching, annealing and hot-pressing processes, but a small amount of the marcasite phase was identified. Partial filling within the filling fraction limit..... More

                        
Visualization of Magnetic Domains in Electrical Steel Using High-Resolution Dark-Field Imaging
Youngju Kim, Jongyul Kim, Daniel Seth Hussey, Oh Youl Kwon, Seung Wook Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(6):352-359.   Published online 2019 May 16
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.6.352

Abstract
Electrical steel is a soft magnetic steel material used in electric devices such as transformers and motors. The performance of these electric devices is primarily related to the magnetic properties of electrical steel, and the assessment of the magnetic properties of electrical steel has been considered an important topic. We..... More

                        
Electronic Transport and Thermoelectric Properties of Cu12-xZnxSb4S13 Tetrahedrites Prepared by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Pressing
Sung-Gyu Kwak, Go-Eun Lee, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(5):328-333.   Published online 2019 Apr 10
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.5.328

Abstract
Tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 has low lattice thermal conductivity because of the lone-pair electrons of Sb, which cause the Cu atoms to vibrate at a low frequency and high amplitude. When the Cu atoms of Cu12Sb4S13 are partially substituted with a transition metal, changes in the Cu vibrations can intensify phonon scattering,..... More

                        
Characterization of Viscoelastic Behavior of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) by Nanoindentation
Jong-hyoung Kim, Jinwoo Lee, Woojoo Kim, Jongheon Kim, Seung-Kyun Kang, Dongil Kwon
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(5):289-294.   Published online 2019 May 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.5.289

Abstract
In this study, we characterize the viscoelastic behavior of polymers using nanoindentation. We applied the indentation representative stress approach and elastic solution to the Maxwell model and determined that there was a linear relationship between the inverses of the initial unloading stiffness and indentation unloading rate. From nanoindentation tests with..... More

                        
Thermoelectric Properties of MnSi1.74-1.75:Gem Prepared by Solid-State Reaction and Hot Pressing
In-Jae Lee, Sol-Bin Park, Soon-Chul Ur, Kyung-Wook Jang, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(4):264-269.   Published online 2019 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.4.264

Abstract
Higher manganese silicides (HMSs) MnSi1.74-1.75:Gem (m = 0.01–0.04) were prepared by solid-state reaction and hot pressing. The major phases of the HMSs were Mn27Si47 or Mn4Si7, and a small quantity of Si remained, but the intermetallic compound MnSi was not formed. The lattice constant increased with the substitution of Ge..... More

                        
Comparative Leaching Study on Conichalcite and Chalcopyrite Under Different Leaching Systems
Jiajia Wu, Junmo Ahn, Jaeheon Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(4):245-250.   Published online 2019 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.4.245

Abstract
Copper leaching from low-grade copper ore samples obtained from two active mines in the US, named conichalcite (sample A) and chalcopyrite (sample B), were studied under different leaching conditions using sulfuric acid and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). The conichalcite, sample A, is calcium-copper arsenite hydroxide [CaCu(AsO4)(OH)] with small amount of..... More

                           Cited By 1
Corrosion of Hot-dip Aluminized 9Cr-1Mo Steel in N2/0.1%H2S Gas
Muhammad Ali Abro, Junhee Hahn, Dong Bok Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(4):236-244.   Published online 2019 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.4.236

Abstract
ASTM P91 steel (viz. 9Cr-1Mo steel) was hot-dip aluminized to form a ~70 μm thick coating, and was then corroded in N2/0.1%H2S gas for 50 h at 800 and 900 ºC, to study the effect of aluminizing on the corrosion resistance of P91 steel in highly corrosive H2S environments. Before..... More

                        
Anisotropy in Green Body Bending Strength due to Additive Direction in the Binder-Jetting Additive Manufacturing Process
Ji-Won Oh, Sahn Nahm, Byoungmoon Kim, Hanshin Choi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(4):227-235.   Published online 2019 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.4.227

Abstract
The additive manufacturing (AM) process is a production technology process that has recently attracted attention. Among AM processes, the binder jetting (BJ) method is advantageous because it allows both wide material selection and design freedom. However, the output arrangement, which determines the direction in which the binder is injected during..... More

                           Cited By 1
Effects of Zn(BH4)2, Ni, and/or Ti Doping on the Hydrogen-Storage Features of MgH2
Myoung Youp Song, Young Jun Kwak
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(3):176-183.   Published online 2019 Feb 8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.3.176

Abstract
In the present work, MgH2 was doped with Zn(BH4)2, Ni, and/or Ti to improve its hydrogen absorption and release features. Samples were prepared by grinding in a planetary ball mill in a hydrogen atmosphere. To increase the hydrogen absorption and release rates without significantly sacrificing hydrogenstorage capacity the additive percentages..... More

                        
Extraction Behavior of Hydrogen Ion by an Ionic Liquid Mixture of Aliquat 336 and Cyanex 272 in Chloride Solution
Minh Nhan Le, Seong Ho Son, Man Seung Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(3):162-169.   Published online 2019 Feb 8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.3.162

Abstract
During the extraction of metal ions from a weak acidic chloride solution by ionic liquids consisting of an organophosphorus extractant and Aliquat 336, the equilibrium pH is sometimes observed to be higher than the initial pH. To compare the hydrogen ion extraction behavior of tertiary and quaternary amines, Alamine 336,..... More

                        
Improvement of Alumina Dissolution from the Mechanically Activated Dross Using Ultrasound-Assisted Leaching
Thi Thuy Nhi Nguyen, Man Seung Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(3):154-161.   Published online 2019 Feb 14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.3.154

Abstract
Aluminum dross results from the re-melting of used aluminum cans, and is a valuable resource containing alumina. In general, aluminum dross contains oxides of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si and Ti and some salts. As a continuation of the previous work to recover pure alumina from the dross, the effect..... More

                        
Pressure Transmission in the Compaction Process of Nickel Powder Using the Finite Element Methods
Jong Won Baek, Seong Jin Park
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(2):115-123.   Published online 2019 Jan 9
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.2.115

Abstract
The compression process is one of the more widely used industrial manufacturing methods for fabricating desired shape of specimens with various materials such as metals and ceramics. In the compaction process, the upper punch moves into the powder, and force is transmitted between particles, then achieving densification. In this process,..... More

                        
Numerical Investigation of the Self-Propagation of Intermetallic Reaction Waves in Nanoscale Aluminum/Nickel Reactive Multilayer Foils
Kyoungjin Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(2):97-107.   Published online 2019 Jan 8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.2.97

Abstract
Among several candidates for nanoenergetic materials and systems, nanoscale reactive multilayer foils (NRMF) or bimetallic nano-laminates are highly promising candidates. They provide the highly desirable pyrotechnical properties of high energy density and reaction sensitivity as well as flexible tunability. They could be useful in various fields of explosive and propellant..... More

                        
Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO/TiO2 Photocatalyst Decorated with PbS QDs for the Degradation of Aniline Blue Solution
Jong-Ho Lee, Hong-Joo Ahn, Jeong-Il Youn, Young-Jig Kim, Su-Jeong Suh, Han-Jun Oh
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(12):900-909.   Published online 2018 Dec 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.12.900

Abstract
A ZnO/TiO2 photocatalyst decorated with PbS quantum dots (QDs) was synthesized to achieve high photocatalytic efficiency for the decomposition of dye in aqueous media. A TiO2 porous layer, as a precursor photocatalyst, was fabricated using micro-arc oxidation, and exhibited irregular porous cells with anatase and rutile crystalline structures. Then, a..... More

                           Cited By 5
Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg Alloy Prepared by Incorporating Polyvinylidene Fluoride via Reactive Milling
Myoung Youp Song, Young Jun Kwak
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(12):878-884.   Published online 2018 Dec 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.12.878

Abstract
In the present work, we selected a polymer, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), as an additive to improve the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties of Mg. 95 wt% Mg + 5 wt% PVDF (designated Mg-5PVDF) samples were prepared via milling in hydrogen atmosphere (reactive milling), and the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation characteristics of the..... More

                           Cited By 3
Hydrogenation Properties of MgH2–CaO Composites Synthesized by Hydrogen-Induced Mechanical Alloying
Min Gyeom Kim, Jeong-Heum Han, Young-Hwan Lee, Jong-Tae Son, Tae Whan Hong
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(11):829-834.   Published online 2018 Nov 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.11.829

Abstract
Although magnesium-based alloys are attractive materials for hydrogen storage applications, their activation properties, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic equilibrium parameters, and degradation characteristics must be improved for practical applications. Further, magnesium poses several risks, including explosion hazard, environmental pollution, insufficient formability, and industrial damage. To overcome these problems, CaO-added Mg alloys, also..... More

                        
Thermoelectric Properties of P-type (Ce1-zYbz)0.8Fe4-xCoxSb12 Skutterudites
Deok-Yeong Choi, Ye-Eun Cha, Il-Ho Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(11):822-828.   Published online 2018 Nov 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.11.822

Abstract
P-type Ce/Yb-filled skutterudites were synthesized, and their charge transport and thermoelectric properties were investigated with partial double filling and charge compensation. In the case of (Ce1-zYbz)0.8Fe4Sb12 without Co substitution, the marcasite (FeSb2) phase formed alongside the skutterudite phase, but the generation of the marcasite phase was inhibited by increasing Co..... More

                        
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