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Visualization of Magnetic Domains in Electrical Steel Using High-Resolution Dark-Field Imaging
Youngju Kim, Jongyul Kim, Daniel Seth Hussey, Oh Youl Kwon, Seung Wook Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(6):352-359.   Published online 2019 May 16
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.6.352

Electrical steel is a soft magnetic steel material used in electric devices such as transformers and motors. The performance of these electric devices is primarily related to the magnetic properties of electrical steel, and the assessment of the magnetic properties of electrical steel has been considered an important topic. We..... More

Effect of Ni and Cu Addition on Corrosion Behaviors of Pre-Oxidized Ultra-Strong Steel for Automotive Applications
Ni 및 Cu 첨가가 고온 산화된 자동차용 초고강도 강재의 부식 거동에 미치는 영향
Seung Min Ryu, Hwan Goo Seong, Jeong Kil Kim, Joong-Ki Hwang, Man Jae Lee, Min-Suk Oh, Sung Jin Kim
류승민, 성환구, 김정길, 황중기, 이만재, 오민석, 김성진
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(6):343-351.   Published online 2019 May 16
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.6.343

The incomplete elimination of oxide scale formed during the normalizing process can result in severe degradation of the surface and mechanical properties of ultra-strong steels. This study revealed that the formation of oxide scale was highly dependent upon the alloying elements Ni and Cu. Ni-bearing steel showed a much higher..... More

Corrosion of Hot-dip Aluminized 9Cr-1Mo Steel in N2/0.1%H2S Gas
Muhammad Ali Abro, Junhee Hahn, Dong Bok Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(4):236-244.   Published online 2019 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.4.236

ASTM P91 steel (viz. 9Cr-1Mo steel) was hot-dip aluminized to form a ~70 μm thick coating, and was then corroded in N2/0.1%H2S gas for 50 h at 800 and 900 ºC, to study the effect of aluminizing on the corrosion resistance of P91 steel in highly corrosive H2S environments. Before..... More

Anisotropy in Green Body Bending Strength due to Additive Direction in the Binder-Jetting Additive Manufacturing Process
Ji-Won Oh, Sahn Nahm, Byoungmoon Kim, Hanshin Choi
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(4):227-235.   Published online 2019 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.4.227

The additive manufacturing (AM) process is a production technology process that has recently attracted attention. Among AM processes, the binder jetting (BJ) method is advantageous because it allows both wide material selection and design freedom. However, the output arrangement, which determines the direction in which the binder is injected during..... More

Effect of Cr Electroplating Layer Thickness on the Tensile and High Cycle Fatigue Properties of AISI 1045 Steel
AISI 1045 강의 인장 및 고주기 피로 특성에 미치는 Cr 도금층 두께의 영향
Gi-Su Ham, Yeon-Ji Kang, Hyung-Jun Kim, Sang-Hoon Yoon, Kee-Ahn Lee
함기수, 강연지, 김형준, 윤상훈, 이기안
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(3):138-145.   Published online 2019 Feb 14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.3.138

This study investigated and compared the tensile and high-cycle fatigue properties of AISI 1045 steel and Cr electroplated AISI 1045 steel. First, tensile and fatigue specimens were machined from AISI 1045 steel (substrate), and two kinds of Cr electroplating layers with different layer thickness were applied. The substrate, AISI 1045..... More

Corrosion Resistance and Adhesion of Paint Coating Film on Zn-Mg-Al Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets
아연-마그네슘-알루미늄 합금도금강판의 도장 내식성 및 밀착성
Jae-Won Lee, Bora Park, Sung Jin Kim
이재원, 박보라, 김성진
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(2):77-83.   Published online 2019 Jan 9
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.2.77

Zn-Al-Mg alloy galvanized steel sheets have excellent corrosion resistance and improved cut-edge corrosion resistance. Most of the galvanized steel sheets used for outdoor applications are coated again on the galvanizing layer, or after a plastic film is laminated. As the corrosion products formed by the corrosion of Zn accumulate over..... More

Comparison of Microstructure and Residual Stress Affecting Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes
오스테나이트 스테인리스강 튜브의 응력부식균열 민감도에 영향을 미치는 미세조직 및 잔류응력 비교
Ho Jung Lee, Seungjin Oh, Hongdeok Kim
이호중, 오승진, 김홍덕
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2019;57(1):51-59.   Published online 2018 Dec 14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2019.57.1.51

Three 304L austenitic stainless steel feedwater heater (FWH) tubes used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) were investigated in this study. By comparing metallurgical differences, such as microstructural features, micro-hardness, and circumferential residual stress of the failed and non-failed FWH tubes by stress corrosion cracking (SCC), factors which could affect SCC..... More

                           Cited By 1
Comparative Study of Estimation Methods of the Endpoint Temperature in Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking Process with Selection of Input Parameters
Tae Chang Park, Beom Seok Kim, Tae Young Kim, Il Bong Jin, Yeong Koo Yeo
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(11):813-821.   Published online 2018 Nov 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.11.813

The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking process in the steel industry is highly complicated, and subject to variations in raw material composition. During the BOF steelmaking process, it is essential to maintain the carbon content and the endpoint temperature at their set points in the liquid steel. This paper presents..... More

Effects of Tempering Condition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 30MnB5 Hot-Stamping steel
핫스탬핑용 30MnB5강의 템퍼링 조건에 따른 미세조직 및 기계적 물성 연구
Junyeong Jeong, Sang-Cheon Park, Ga-Young Shin, Chang Wook Lee, Tae-Jeong Kim, Min-Su Choi
정준영, 박상천, 신가영, 이창욱, 김태정, 최민수
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(11):787-795.   Published online 2018 Nov 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.11.787

The effects of tempering condition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 30MnB5 hot stamping steel were investigated in this study. Before the tempering, hot-stamped 30MnB5 steel was composed of only α′-martensite microstructure without precipitates. After the tempering at 180 ℃ for 120 min, nano-sized ε-carbides were precipitated in the..... More

                           Cited By 1
Precise Flow Stress Analysis for the Occurrence of Dynamic Ferritic Transformation and Dynamic Recrystallization of Austenite in Low Carbon Steel
고온 변형 곡선을 이용한 동적 재결정 해석과 동적 상변태의 조기 예측
Nokeun Park
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(11):779-786.   Published online 2018 Nov 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.11.779

There have been previous attempts to observe the occurrence of dynamic ferritic transformation at temperatures even above Ae3 in a low-carbon steel, and not only in steels, but recently also in titanium alloys. In this study, a new approach is proposed that involves treating true stress-true strain curves in uniaxial..... More

Effect of Carbon Contents on Corrosion and Hydrogen Diffusion Behaviors of Ultra-Strong Steels for Automotive Applications
탄소함량이 자동차용 초고강도 철강소재의 부식 및 수소 확산 거동에 미치는 영향
Eun Hye Hwang, Hwan Goo Seong, Sung Jin Kim
황은혜, 성환구, 김성진
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(8):570-579.   Published online 2018 Aug 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.8.570

Recently developed ultra-strong GIGA STEEL exhibites superior mechanical properties, with a high tensile strength of more than 1.5 GPa and good impact toughness. Nevertheless, its application to auto parts has been severely restricted, mainly due to a substantial reduction in the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) induced by aqueous corrosion...... More

                           Cited By 1
Influence of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties for Cold Worked 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel
냉간압연 된 304 오스테나이트 스테인리스강의 열처리에 의한 기계적 특성 평가
Minha Park, Kwangyoon Kim, Jaeho Jang, Hyoung Chan Kim, Hyoung-Seok Moon, Jong Bae Jeon, Dae-Geun Nam, Keun Yong Sohn, Byung Jun Kim
박민하, 김광윤, 장재호, 김형찬, 문형석, 전종배, 남대근, 손근용, 김병준
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(7):490-498.   Published online 2018 Jul 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.7.490

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in a variety of industries, such as power plants, aerospace, automotive, construction and electronics, due to their excellent mechanical properties including ductility, toughness and corrosion resistance. For application in various industries, many parts and products require plastic processes such as cold rolling, cold forging..... More

                           Cited By 1
Correlation of Microstructural Factors with the Yield Ratio and Uniform Elongation in API X80 Linepipe Steels
API X80 라인파이프강의 미세조직적 인자와 항복비 및 균일 연신율의 상관관계
Sang-In Lee, Seung-Wan Lee, Seok Gyu Lee, Sunghak Lee, Hwan Gyo Jung, Byoungchul Hwang
이상인, 이승완, 이석규, 이성학, 정환교, 황병철
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(6):413-422.   Published online 2018 Jun 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.6.413

In the present study, the correlation of microstructural factors with yield ratio and uniform elongation was investigated in API X80 linepipe steels with different microstructures by varying thermomechanical control process conditions. The grain size and microstructure fraction of the API X80 linepipe steels were quantitatively measured by EBSD analysis and then..... More

Characterization of Microstructures and Creep Fracture Characteristics of Dissimilar Metal Welds between Inconel 740H Ni-Based Superalloy and Gr.92 Ferritic Steel
니켈기 Inconel 740H 초내열합금과 고Cr계 Gr.92 내열강의 이종금속 용접부의 미세조직 및 크리프 파단 특성
Kyeong-Yong Shin, Ji-Won Lee, Jung-Min Han, Kyong-Woon Lee, Byeong-Ook Kong, Hyun-Uk Hong
신경용, 이지원, 한정민, 이경운, 공병욱, 홍현욱
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(5):375-383.   Published online 2018 May 8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.5.375

Microstructure evolution and the creep fracture characteristics of dissimilar welds between Ni-based superalloy Inconel 740H and High Cr ferritic steel Gr.92 were investigated. The dissimilar welds were fabricated by shielded metal arc (SMA) welding process with Ni-based austenitic Inconel 182 superalloy. Postweld heat treatment at 760 oC for 4 hours..... More

         Cited By 1
High-temperature Oxidation of Hot-dip Aluminized 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel
Muhammad Ali Abro, Junhee Hahn, Dong Bok Lee
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(5):350-359.   Published online 2018 May 8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.5.350

When 2.25Cr-1Mo steel was hot-dip aluminized, a coating consisting of (Al-rich topcoat)/(Al13Fe4 layer)/(Al5Fe2 layer) formed. With increment of oxidation temperature, the transform of Al→Al13Fe4→Al5Fe2→AlFe→AlFe3→α-Fe(Al)→α-Fe occurred through interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate as follows. The oxidation at 700 oC changed the coating to (α-Al2O3 scale)/(α-Al2O3, Al13Fe4, Al5Fe2)-mixed layer)/(Al5Fe2 layer)/(AlFe..... More

         Cited By 1
Effects of Thermal Aging Induced Microstructure Evolution on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Delta-Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld
오스테나이트계 스테인리스강 용접부 델타-페라이트의 열화에 따른 미세조직 변화가 기계적 물성 및 부식 특성에 미치는 영향
Sang Kyu Park, Ho Jung Lee, Jong Hyeon Lee
박상규, 이호중, 이종현
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(4):296-303.   Published online 2018 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.4.296

347 austenitic stainless steel weld (ASSW) was thermally aged at 343, 400 and 450 °C up to 20,000 h in this study. Effects of thermal aging induced microstructure evolution on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of delta-ferrite in the 347 ASSW were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by high resolution..... More

Effect of Oxi-Nitrocarburizing on the Microstructure, Nanohardness and Corrosion Properties for Low Carbon Steel
산질화처리가 저탄소강의 미세조직과 나노경도 및 부식특성에 미치는 영향
Young-Wook Cho, Jong-Ho Won, Jeong-Ho Woo, Sang-Ho Yu, Young-Rae Cho
조영욱, 원종호, 우정호, 유상호, 조영래
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(4):289-295.   Published online 2018 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.4.289

Oxi-nitrocarburizing treatment was performed to improve the anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties of low carbon steels. The oxi-nitrocarburizing was carried out in 2 steps: a gas nitrocarburizing step at 560 ℃ and an oxidation step at 550 ℃ for 30 min with steamed water. The mechanical and chemical properties of the..... More

         Cited By 1
Effect of Thermo-mechanical Treatment on the Formation Behavior of Martensite in 316L Stainless Steel
316L 스테인리스강에서 마르텐사이트 생성거동에 미치는 가공열처리의 영향
Jong-Sig Kim, Jae-Nam Kim, Chang-Yong Kang
김종식, 김재남, 강창룡
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(4):265-271.   Published online 2018 Apr 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.4.265

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on the formation behavior of martensite in 316L stainless steel. Dislocation, α' and ε-martensite were formed by thermo-mechanical treatment. Martensite with surface relief and specific direction was formed by thermo-mechanical treatment. Martensite formed by thermo-mechanical treatment were reversed..... More

Effect of Hot Forging and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cr Steel
Cr강의 미세조직과 파괴인성에 미치는 열간단조 및 열처리 공정의 영향
Dong Jun Lee, Yong-Nam kwon, Min Suk Kim, Ga Eun Ku, Sang Hyun Heo, Nam Yong Kim, Jin-Mo Lee
이동준, 권용남, 김민석, 구가은, 허상현, 김남용, 이진모
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(3):221-226.   Published online 2018 Mar 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.3.221

In this study, the effects of hot forging and heat treatment (quenching and tempering) of cast Cr alloy steel on the microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. The hot forging was performed at a compressive ratio 0.5 at 1,250 oC. The heat treatment process was quenching (860 oC for 2..... More

Effects of Manufacturing Conditions on Tensile Fracture Behaviors in Hyper-Eutectoid Steel Wires
과공석 강선에서 공정조건이 인장파단 거동에 미치는 영향
Kang Suk An, Jung Hoon Park, Won Jong Nam
안강석, 박정훈, 남원종
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(3):187-196.   Published online 2018 Mar 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.3.187

This study investigated the effects of manufacturing conditions, such as patenting temperature and drawing strains, on the tensile fracture behaviors, especially on reduction of area (RA), of hyper-eutectoid steel wire. Steel wires with the chemical compositions of Fe-0.92C-1.3Si-0.6Mn-0.3Cr (wt%), were austenitized at 900 °C for 3 min and isothermally transformed..... More

Effect of Pre-Straining on the High-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets for Automotive Structural Uses
자동차 구조용 열연강판의 고주기 피로 특성에 미치는 전변형 효과
Dong-Woog Ha, Chang-Yeol Jeong
하동욱, 정창열
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(3):177-186.   Published online 2018 Mar 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.3.177

The drive towards weight reduction in the automotive industry has led to the use of high strength steel sheets for structural applications. Pressing and stamping are important processes in automotive production and result in additional straining on the vehicle body and chassis sheet material. It is therefore important to have..... More

Hydrogen Induced Crack Propagation in Bainitic X70 Steel in Hydrogen Pressured Tensile Test
베이나이트계 X70강 수소가압분위기 인장시험의 수소취성균열 전파
Byung Hak Choe, Hyeon Su Jang, Bum Gyu Lee, Eui Soo Kim, Woo Sik Kim, Un Bong Baek, Sung Hoon Nam
최병학, 장현수, 이범규, 김의수, 김우식, 백운봉, 남승훈
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2018;56(1):1-7.   Published online 2018 Jan 1
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2018.56.1.1

This study investigated hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of X70 steel, used for gas pipeline material, with a bainitic microstructure. The effect of hydrogen on the steel was investigated by tensiletesting in a high pressure hydrogen atmosphere, using OM, SEM and TEM analyses. The mechanisms of hydrogen-related cracking were represented as..... More

         Cited By 1
Effects of Homogenization Treatment, Mn/S ratio and -ferrite on the Hot Workability of Free-Machining 303-series Austenitic Stainless Steels
쾌삭 303계 스테인레스강의 열간성형성에 미치는 균질화처리, Mn/S 비 및 델타-페라이트의 영향
Jae-Young Jung
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(12):880-887.   Published online 2017 Dec 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.12.880

To improve the hot-workability of free-machining austenitic stainless steel, we studied the effects of homogenization treatment, Mn/S ratio and the retained δ-ferrite on the hot-workability of 303 austenitic stainless steels. The reduction of area was measured as a function of homogenization temperature in the range of 1160-1250 ℃ and 1-50..... More

AISI 304 Steel Brazing Using A Flexible Brazing Foil Fabricated by Tape Casting Method
Ashutosh Sharma, Soon-Jae Lee, Joo-Hee Oh, Jae Pil Jung
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(12):836-844.   Published online 2017 Dec 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.12.836

The authors report the fabrication of a flexible nickel brazing foil using powdered nickel alloy filler (BNi-2) mixed with an organic binder. The organic binder was composed of a polyacrylic acid polymer, glycol, carbon tetrachloride, and water as a dispersion medium for the powder. The brazing paste so formed was..... More

Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C Light-Weight Steels
Fe-Mn-Al-C계 경량철강의 미세조직 및 기계적 물성 변화에 미치는 냉각속도의 영향
Jun Young Park, Seong-Jun Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Joonoh Moon, Tae-Ho Lee, Kyeong Jae Jeong, Heung Nam Han, Jong-Ho Shin
박준영, 박성준, 이재현, 문준오, 이태호, 정경재, 한흥남, 신종호
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(12):825-835.   Published online 2017 Dec 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.12.825

The effects of cooling after solution heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of light-weight steels were investigated using Fe-30Mn-xAl-0.9C alloys containing 9.0–12.8 wt% Al. Lab-scale specimens (thickness: 10 mm) of the alloys were cooled by different cooling rates from -337 to -0.053 ℃/s using water, air, and furnace..... More

Pulsed Electrodeposition of Thin Cobalt Coating Layer on Ferritic Stainless Steel for SOFC Interconnects
Suk-Chul Kwak, Byung Kyu Kim, Dong-Ik Kim, Young Whan Cho
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(11):768-776.   Published online 2017 Oct 31
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.11.768

A thin, compact, and uniform cobalt layer was coated on ferritic stainless steel (Crofer 22 APU) by high frequency square pulsed electrodeposition in an aqueous solution containing cobalt chloride and boric acid. The effects of various electrodeposition parameters and post heat treatment on the morphology, thickness, roughness and adhesion of..... More

Effects of Microstructure Variation on Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties in Heavy-Section SA508 Gr.3 Low Alloy Steels for Commercial Reactor Pressure Vessel
SA508 Gr.3 상용 원자로용기강의 두께방향 미세조직 변화가 인장 및 충격특성에 미치는 영향
Seokmin Hong, Cholong Lee, Min-Chul Kim, Bong-Sang Lee
홍석민, 이초롱, 김민철, 이봉상
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(11):752-759.   Published online 2017 Oct 31
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.11.752

In this study, the effects of microstructural variations in heavy-section reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels on tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated. Two PRV blocks, OPR1000 and APR1400 (ORV, ARV) were taken from the archive materials used in Korea standard nuclear power plants. Test specimens were sampled from five..... More

         Cited By 1
Inhomogeneous Deformation of Interstitial Free Steel during the High Pressure Torsion Process
Yuepeng Song, Miaomiao Chen, Wenke Wang, Baoyan Xu, Dongsheng Gao, Shuai Zhang, Hyoung Seop Kim
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(10):710-715.   Published online 2017 Sep 28
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.10.710

Interstitial free (IF) steel disks were subjected to various degrees of revolution during application of the high-pressure torsion (HPT) process, and the resulting distributions of hardness and microstructure during the early torsion stage of high-pressure torsion (HPT) were investigated using experimental and simulation approaches. The results indicated that the deformation..... More

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Three High-Manganese Steels Tested by Different Hydrogen Charging Methods
수소 주입 방식에 따른 세 고망간강의 수소 취화 거동 비교
Seung-Yong Lee, Byoungchul Hwang
이승용, 황병철
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(10):695-702.   Published online 2017 Sep 28
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.10.695

In this study the hydrogen embrittlement characteristics of three high-manganese steels were tested using different hydrogen charging methods, and the results were compared with various Mn-containing steels. The results showed that the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of the high-manganese steels increased with increasing inherent strength because deformation mechanisms, such as deformation..... More

Evaluation of Mechanical Property for Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel 304 by Following Post Weld Heat Treatment
STS304의 후열처리에 따른 용접부 미세조직과 기계적 특성 평가
Daehan Jang, Kwangyoon Kim, Hyoung Chan Kim, Jong Bae Jeon, Dae-Geun Nam, Keun Yong Sohn, Byung Jun Kim
장대한, 김광윤, 김형찬, 전종배, 남대근, 손근용, 김병준
Korean J. Met. Mater. 2017;55(9):664-670.   Published online 2017 Aug 30
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2017.55.9.664

Austenitic stainless steels have excellent mechanical property and corrosion resistance, and are for these reasons used in demanding applications such as power plant, nuclear reactor and off-shore plant. Especially, austenitic stainless steel 304 (STS304) is mainly used as a pipe material in nuclear power plants. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is..... More

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